This photo with the sedimentary rock was taken in a rest area 1o miles from the Mackinac Bridge, MI.
Sedimentary rock is one of the three main rock types (the others being igneous and metamorphic rock). Sedimentary rock is formed by deposition and consolidation of mineral and organic material and from precipitation of minerals from solution. The processes that form sedimentary rock occur at the surface of the Earth and within bodies of water. Rock formed from sediments covers 75-80% of the Earth's land area, and includes common types such as limestone, chalk, dolostone, sandstone, conglomerate, some types of breccia, and shale.
Sedimentary rocks are formed because of the overburden pressure as particles of sediment are deposited out of air, ice, wind, gravity, or water flows carrying the particles in suspension. As sediment deposition builds up, the overburden (or 'lithostatic') pressure squeezes the sediment into layered solids in a process known as lithification ('rock formation') and the original connate fluids are expelled. The term diagenesis is used to describe all the chemical, physical, and biological changes, including cementation, undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition and during and after its lithification, exclusive of surface weathering.